Affective Computing: SMART Interactions of Machines with Humans

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2014 by IJETT Journal
Volume-12 Number-9
Year of Publication : 2014
Authors : Dr. Preeti Khanna


Dr. Preeti Khanna. "Affective Computing: SMART Interactions of Machines with Humans", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V12(9),480-485 June 2014. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group


Today people spend lot of time in interacting with computers and machines. Due to which day to day interaction between human and computer has huge expectations like machines can learn from their environment and hence could interact well with people more naturally. Recent advancement in the field of affective computing has developed as a result of these endeavours. The aim of this article is to highlight the concept of affective computing, recent trends and its applications. The literature review is showing that emotions may serve as a powerful vehicle for enhancing or inhibiting learning and there are optimistic expectations towards affective computing among researchers. Hence by large affective computing systems are expected to have positive impacts in various fields like learning, gaming, entertainment, etc. It is anticipated that in the coming future, affective computing will be a standard features for computer user or to HCI technology. This paper will discuss this emerging field along with few potential concerns also.


[1] R.W. Picard, Affective Computing, MIT, Press, 2000
[2] D. Norman, Emotional Design: Why We Love (Or Hate) Everyday Things,Basic Books, 2004.
[3] M. Bunting, Willing Slaves: How the
Overwork Culture Is Ruling Our Lives, HarperCollins, 2004. [4] C. Breazeal, Emotions and Sociable Humanoid Robots, Hudika, E. (ed.), International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 59, 119-155, 2003.
[5] KISMET, ARTICLE available on web Retrieved on June, 2009 from, 2009.
[6] T.Malik, Retrieved on August, 2013 from, 2013.
[7] Robot Stand-Up COMEDIAN, Retrieved on August, 2013 from
[8] J. D. Foley, E. P. Glinert, J. D. Hollan,R. E. Kraut, T. B. Sheridan, and T. Skelly. JTEC Panel Report on Human Computer Interaction Technologies in Japan, 1996.
[9] A. Ronzhin and A. Karpov, Assistive multimodal system based on speech recognition and head tracking, Proceedings of 13th European Signal Processing Conference, Antalya, 2005.
[10] M. Betke, J. Gips and P. Fleming, The camera mouse: Visual tracking of body features to provide Computer access for people with severe disabilities, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 10(1), 1–10, 2002.
[11] C. Mauri, T. Granollers, J. Lores, and M. Garcia, Computer Vision Interaction for People with Severe Movement Restrictions, Human Technology, an Interdisciplinary Journal on Humans in ICT Environments, 2 (1), 38–54, 2006.
[12] A. T. Duchowski, A breadth-first survey of eye tracking applications, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 34(4), 455–470, 2002.
[13] L. Shen, M. Wang, and R. Shen, Affective e-Learning: Using “Emotional” Data to Improve Learning in Pervasive Learning Environment. Educational Technology & Society 12(2), 176–189, 2009.
[14] B. Kort, R. Reilly, and R.W. Picard, An affective model of interplay between emotions and learning: Reengineering educational Pedagogy-building a learning companion. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Los Alamitos: CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 43-46, 2001.
[15] Get Mind Smart, Retrieved August, 2013, from
[16] Driverless article available on web, Retrieved on 23rd August, 2013
[17] J. Muller, No Hands, No Feet: My Unnerving Ride In Google's Driverless Car, Retrieved on 23rd August, 2013 from, 2013.
[18] H.W. Guy, A.S. Neville, and S.Y. Mark, Where Is Computing Driving Cars?, International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 13(2), 203–229, 2001.
[19] P. Rani, Dissertation on Psychophysiology–Based Affective Communication for Implicit Human - Robot Interaction, Nashville, Tennessee, 2005.
[20] P.H. Kahn, B. Friedman, D. R. Perez-Granados, and N.G. Freier, Robotic pets in the lives of preschool children, in CHI ’04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, 449–1452, New York, NY, USA, ACM, 2004.
[21] B. Mutlu, J. Forlizzi, and J. Hodgins, A storytelling robot: Modeling and evaluation of human-like gaze behavior”, in Proceeding of International Conference on Humanoid Robots, IEEE, 2006.
[22] H. Kozima, M. Michalowski, and C. Nakagawa, Keepon: A playful robot for research, therapy, and entertainment, International Journal of Social Robotics, 2008.
[23] G. Hoffman, R. Kubat, and C. Breazeal, A hybrid control System for puppeteering A live robotic stage actor, in the 17th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 2008.
[24] A. Bruce, J. Knight, S. Listopad, B. Magerko, and I.R. Nourbakhsh, Robot improve using drama to create believable agents, in Proc. International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2000.
[25] I.R. Nourbakhsh, C. Kunz, and T. Willeke, The mobotmuseum robot installations: a five year experiment, in proceeding of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE, 2003.
[26] C. Breazeal, A. Wang, and R. Picard, Experiments with a robotic computer: body,affect and cognition interactions, in Proc. of the ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (HRI), 153–160, Arlington, Virginia, USA, ACM, 2007.
[27] C. Liu, P. Rani and N. Sarkar, Human-robot interaction using affective cues, in Proceeding of the 15th International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2006.
[28] D. Terdiman, Inside the Navy Command Center of the Future, 29 Sept 2009, Reterived January2011 from
[29] D. Gouin and V. Lavigne, Trends in Human- Computer Interaction to Support Future Intelligence Analysis Capabilities, 16th Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium International Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations, Quebec City, Canada, 2010.
[30] I. McCowan, D. Gatica-Perez, S. Bengio, G. Lathoud, M. Barnard,and D. Zhang, Automatic analysis of multimodal group actions in meetings, IEEE Transactions on PAMI, 27(3), 305-317, 2005.
[31] S. Meyer, and A. Rakotonirainy, A Survey of research on Context-aware homes, Australasian Information Security Workshop Conference on ACSW Frontiers, 159-168. 2003.
[32] C. Becker, A. Nakasone, H. Prendinger, M. ,Ishizuka,and I. Wachsmuth, Physiologically interactive gaming with the 3 D agent Max. International Workshop of Conventional Informatics at JSAI-05, Japan. 2005.
[33] K. Gilleade, A. Dix, and J. Allanson, Modes of Affective Gaming: Assist me, Challenge Me, Emote Me, DIGRA, Canada, 2005.
[34] Sykes, J. (2004). Affective Gaming. Reteived May 2008, from
[35] E. Hudlicka, Affective Computing for Game design, In Proceeding of 4th International North American Conference on Intelligent Gaming and Simulation, Canada, 2008.
[36] Gilleade and Dix, Using frustration in The design of adaptive Videogames, Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, 228-232, ACM, 2004.
[37] Sykes and Brown, Affective gaming: Measuring emotion through the Gamepad CHI 2003: New Horizons, 732-733.2003.
[38] M.B. Bekker, KidReporter: a user requirements gathering technique for designing with children. In Interacting with Computers: 187-202, 2003.
[39] J. Scheier, R. Fernandez, J. Klein, and R.W. Picard, Frustrating the User on purpose: a step toward building an affective computer, interacting with computers, 14(2), 93-118, 2002.
[40] M. Federoff, Heuristics and usability guidelines for the creation and evaluation of fun in video games. Indiana, 2002.
[41] I. Verenikina and J. Herrington, Computer play, young children and the development of higher order thinking: Exploring the possibilities, In: Transformational Tools for 21st Century Minds (TT21C), 2006.
[42] Q. E. Looi and S.L. See, Effectively Engaging Students in Educational Games by Deploying HCI Evaluation Methods, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, I, San Francisco, USA, 2010.

Affective computing, Human computer interaction (HCI), Emotion, Privacy Concerns.