Design of Radar to Detect a Target at an Arbitrary Standoff Range

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
  
© 2017 by IJETT Journal
Volume-46 Number-7
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Oenga Jones Ragira
  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V46P265

MLA 

Oenga Jones Ragira "Design of Radar to Detect a Target at an Arbitrary Standoff Range", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V46(7),387-395 April 2017. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group

Abstract
In recent years, the use of different wireless and/or remote sensing techniques for identifying and tracking various objects has increased significantly. The detection and identification of targets navigating a given area are essential in order to prevent accidents and to take counter measures against illegal activities. Usually, radar systems are employed for the detection of objects. An original method for discriminating between electronic targets, by receiving at least two nonlinear mixing products near a harmonic, is presented. Specifically, the upper bounded inter element spacing provides a correct angular sampling accordingly to the Nyquist theorem and the lower bounded number of elements of the array ensures the continuity of the observation during multiple scans. (Radio Frequency Interference)RFI is particularly disruptive to harmonic radar since the signal-to-noise ratio of the second order nonlinearity as is the case with traditional linear radar hence signal-to- interferenceplus- noise ratio (SINR) decreases. Improved transponder design, MIMO, spectrum sensing, compressive sensing, adaptive bandwidth are among the techniques current in play for an improved performance of Radars. Harmonic radar are inherently highly sensitive. The harmonic radar must therefore avoid interference that could saturate the RF components and drive the RF components into their nonlinear operating region causing self-induced harmonics. It’s vital that a Radar system mitigates the effect of RF in order to improve its efficiency. In this work, Multitone harmonic radar is presented. The radar transmits multiple closely-spaced tones and receives nonlinear mixing products as well as harmonics. Harmonic and Multitone responses are recorded from commercially-available RF devices. . By properly designing the array of passive devices, the system is able to correctly observe the signal reflected from the targeted electronic device over successive scans of the radar. Target detection is demonstrated experimentally for a novel pulsed twotone harmonic radar. Experimental results are extrapolated to estimates radar design parameters to achieve an arbitrary standoff range of the object.

 References

[1] V. Viikari, H. Seppa¨, and D.-W. Kim, ―Intermodulation read- out principle for passive wireless sensors, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1025–1031,2011.
[2] M. S. Khan, M. S. Islam, and H. Deng, ―Design of a reconfig- urable RFID sensing tag as a generic sensing platform toward the future internet of things, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 300–310, 2014.
[3] R. O. Harger, ―Harmonic radar systems for near-ground infoliage nonlinear scatterers, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 230–245, 1976.
[4] J. Shefer and R. J. Klensch, ―Harmonic radar helps autos avoid collisions, IEEE Spectrum, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 1973.
[5] H. Staras and J. Shefer, ―Harmonic radar detecting and ranging system for automotive vehicles, US Patent 3781879, 1973.
[6] H. Kwun, G. L. Burkhardt, and J. L. Fisher, ―Detection of reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete structures using non- linear harmonic and intermodulation wave generation,‖ US Patent 5 180 969, 1993.
[7] J. R. Riley and A. D. Smith, ―Design considerations for an harmonic radar to investigate the flight of insects at low altitude,‖ Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 35, no.2-3, pp. 151–169, 2002.
[8] G. L. Charvat, E. J. Rothwell, L. C. Kempel, and T. Miller, ―Harmonic radar tag measurement and characterization,‖ in Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 696–699, IEEE, Columbus, Ohio, USA, June 2003.
[9] J. Saebboe, V. Viikari, T. Varpula et al., ―Harmonic automotive radar for VRU classification, in Proceedings of the International Radar Conference “Surveillance for a Safer World” (RADAR ’09), pp. 1–5, Bordaux, France, October 2009.
[10] Z.-M. Tsai, P.-H. Jau, N.-C. Kuo et al., ―A high-rangeaccuracy and high-sensitivity harmonic radar code for bee searching, IEEE Transactions on Microwave vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 666–675, 2013.
[11] G. L. Lo¨vei, I. A. N. Stringer, C. D. Devine, and M. Cartellieri, ―Harmonic radar—a method using inexpensive tags to study invertebrate movement on land, New Zealand Journal of Ecology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 187–193, 1997.
[12] G. Brooker, Introduction to Sensors for Ranging and Imaging, SciTech Publishing, 2009.
[13] K.-L. Wong, Planar Antennas for Wireless Communications, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
[14] L. Chioukh, H. Boutayeb, D. Deslandes, and K. Wu, ―Noise and sensitivity of harmonic radar architecture for remote sensing and detection of vital signs, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 1847– 1855, 2014.
[15] D. Psychoudakis, W. Moulder, C.-C. Chen, H. Zhu, and J. L. Volakis, ―A portable low-power harmonic radar system and conformal tag for insect tracking, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 7, pp. 444–447, 2008.
[16] H. M. Aumann and N. W. Emanetoglu, ―A constant beamwidth reflector antenna for a harmonic radar operating in the near- field, in Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics (ANTEM ’14), p. 2, Victoria, Canada, July 2014.
[17] S. Cheng, P. Hallbjo¨rner, and A. Rydberg, ―Array antenna for bodyworn automotive harmonic radar tag, in Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP ’09), pp. 2823–2827, Berlin, Germany, March 2009.
[18] K. Rasilainen, J. Ilvonen, and V. Viikari, ―Antenna matching at harmonic frequencies to complex load impedance,‖ IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 535–538, 2015.
[19] P. V. Nikitin, K. V. S. Rao, S. F. Lam, V. Pillai, R. Martinez, and H. Heinrich, ―Power reflection coefficient analysis for complex impedances in RFID tag design, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 2721–2725,2005.
[20] H. C. Gomes and N. B. Carvalho, ―The use of intermodulation distortion for the design of passive RFID, in Proceedings of the 37th European Microwave Conference (EUMC ’07), pp. 1656–1659, Munich, Germany, October 2007.
[21] Ayesha Qamar, Umar Faruq Modelling and Simulation of UWB Radar System for Through the Wall Imaging and Doppler detection IJETT vol. 17 No.7 Nov 2014

Keywords
Inverse synthetic aperture radar, Very High frequency (VHF), Ultra High frequency (UHF), synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Automatic Detection and Track (ADT), Device Under Test (DUT), Cathode Ray Tube(CRT) , MATLAB , Frequencymodulated continuous-wave (FM-CW).